- simple denial
sustaining the belief that something does not exist, even though it actually occurs. A typical example is the persistent claim that there is no problem with alcohol dependency despite the obvious evidence, which confirms it and is seen by people around.
admitting problems with alcohol, but in such a way that these problems seem much smaller and not as serious as they really are.
denying own responsibility for certain behaviours and maintaining that someone else or something else is responsible.
building an alibi, justifications and other explanations for one's own behaviour reducing one's responsibility and presenting the motives for one's behaviour in a positive light. These are primarily used to provide explanations other than addiction for drinking related behaviour. Very often there is no simple denial of facts about behaviour, but instead fictitious or false reasons are presented.
avoiding specific and personal awareness of drinking issues, treating them in an abstract way, using generalisations, intellectual speculation and theoretical analysis.
changing the subject of conversation or reflection to avoid threatening topics relating to alcohol-related behaviour.
constructing fantasies about unrealistic situations, events and own deeds.
- modifying memories
modelling the image of past events in accordance with current needs, in the service of continued drinking.
creating naive visions of one's own actions and situations, needed to solve specific life problems, and stopping at experiencing pleasant sensations accompanying these dreams.