JEM Vol. 36(2), 2019


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Małgorzata Gawrycka , Anna Szymczak
2019; 36(2): 5-19;

Aim/purpose – The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of structural changes taking place in the Polish economy on the share of labour in national income.
Design/methodology/approach – The scope of this study includes a review of the literature dedicated to the issue and an empirical analysis of data available on this topic. The study uses elements of descriptive statistics and the method of induction.
Findings – The conducted analysis shows that in the years 2005-2016, a relation contrary to that reported by de Serres, Scarpetta, & de la Maisonneuve (2002), concerning shifts of employee groups between sectors of the national economy, prevailed in Poland. No research results on the impact of the decrease in the share of self-employed on the decrease in the share of labour in the national income have been confirmed. At the same time, the effect of changes in the relation between employee remuneration and the added value, resulting from their transition between sectors of the national economy, was positively verified.
Research implications/limitations – The results related to changes in the share of self-employed in the national economy should be treated with caution, as there are also economically inactive entities listed in the Central Statistical Office (GUS) register.
Originality/value/contribution – To date, in Poland comprehensive research into the influence of structural changes on the share of labour in national income has not been conducted.

Keywords: labour share, national economy, employment structure, average salary.
JEL Classification: E20, E24, J21.


Małgorzata Gumola
2019; 36(2): 20-43;

Aim/purpose – Occupational pension schemes are products which seem to create the opportunity for better retirement provision. In Poland, they have not gained a great popularity so far, but now, Polish pension system stands at the threshold of change as the draft law on occupational capital plans has been presented by government and delivered for public consultation. Therefore, the main goal of the study is to answer the question if this new form of occupational pension schemes is a chance for a stimulation of voluntary pension savings.
Design/methodology/approach – The aim of the study has been realised by a critical analysis of current solutions applied in Poland as well as a comparative analysis of solutions applied in European countries, where occupational pension programmes have already succeeded. The paper is mainly of a theoretical and review nature.
Findings – The identified opportunities and threats related to the draft law support the view that occupational capital plans can become a stimulus for a development of supplementary pension system, nevertheless, they still need some amendments. Therefore, some recommendations have been indicated in the work.
Research implications/limitations – Chosen European countries are all characterised by a different social security model and they represent different pension welfare worlds, therefore, they cannot be treated as models which could be blindly copied (differing conditions of each country should be taken into account).
Originality/value/contribution – Among many discussions on occupational capital plans based on political views, the work provides the reader with a content-related evaluation based on facts (previous Polish and foreign experience). It can contribute to the discussion on the development of voluntary pension schemes in Poland and other countries.

Keywords: occupational pension schemes, supplementary pension system, third pillar, voluntary pension plans.
JEL Classification: J32, G23, H55.


Idowu Daniel Onisanwa , Olanrewaju Olaniyan
2019; 36(2): 44-70;

Aim/purpose – The prevalence of poverty among Nigerian households and limited social safety nets predispose the country to health shock. Health shocks are associated with adverse economic consequences: they raise medical expenditure and reduce household consumption. The household responds with informal coping mechanism to smoothen consumption. The coping strategies are limited to household asset endowment and access to credit facility. This study examines the effect of health shock on changes in household consumption and investigates the coping strategies employed in the face of health shock.
Design/methodology/approach – The study is anchored on the full-insurance theory. Data were obtained from two waves of the General Household Survey (GHS) panel, 2011 and 2013. The GHS covered 5,000 households across the six geopolitical zones. Three measures of HS, death of a household member, disability and severe illness, were used. The household consumption was divided into food and non-food. A fixed effect model was estimated to examine the impact of health shock on change in consumption. Multinomial Logit Model was used to determine the coping strategies used by households.
Findings – Disability and death had a negative effect on food consumption. Death decreased non-food consumption of households, while disability was not statistically significant. Severe illness had significant positive impact on consumption. Borrowing significantly affected the ability of households to maintain consumption. Death reduced rural household consumption in Nigeria. Borrowing was the most prominent coping strategy.
Research implications/limitations – Provision of financial protection against health shocks such as payment of disability benefits and assistance to households that report death should be encouraged by the government. The sample was limited to those that reported illness in the four weeks preceding the GHS, thereby excluding those whose illness preceded 28 days before the survey.
Originality/value/contribution – Rural-urban dichotomy among households in Nigeria was acknowledged in examining the relationship between health shocks and variation in consumption.

Keywords: health shocks, consumption smoothing, coping strategies, rural household.
JEL Classification: I19, I31.


Ayman Al Sharafat
2019; 36(2): 71-83;

Aim/purpose – The aim of this study is to examine the spatial inequality in Jordan, amongst Jordan’s rural and urban governorates (Muhafazat).
Design/methodology/approach – This study describes and portrays comparisons between investigated administrative units in search of finding the governorates’ economic inequality. It is based on the official raw data of the Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) which were created by Jordan’s Department of Statistics (DoS) in 2013-2014. It uses four indicators covering water, sewage, labour market and finance to present inequalities between rural and urban areas. In addition, it uses another four measures covering income and expenditure of the households and their members to find inequality among governorates.
Findings – The results indicate that although there is generally a significant inequality between rural and urban areas in Jordan, there is much more substantial inequality among governorates; people in Amman are the richest and those in Tafiela, Mafraq, and Ma’an are the poorest.
Research implications/limitations – Some development programs should be carried out to reduce the existing inequality to lead to the improvement of life quality of the rural areas and to support their infrastructure, as well as to provide economic opportunities. Economic decentralisation should be considered seriously, and the development programs for the governorates should be redefined.
Originality/value/contribution – This is the first investigation into spatial differences in intergenerational mobility in Jordan and provides critical evidence in spatial inequality of economic outcomes and infrastructure available for Jordan.

Keywords: regional inequality, Jordan governorates (Muhafazat), distribution, urban and rural areas.
JEL Classification: D130, R200, R280.


Agnieszka Szmelter-Jarosz
2019; 36(2): 84-104;

Aim/purpose – The main objective of the paper is to explore mobility choices of Generation Y in Poland to check if they can be translated into guidelines for the development of mobility services.
Design/methodology/approach – In the paper, two research methods were used. First of them was an analysis of the literature related to Generation Y mobility according to Denyer & Tranfield (2009) approach. The main research method was the survey method. Respondents were recruited with use of purposive strategy and snowball approach. Data gathered in this study allowed for statistical analysis, mostly related to variables in ordinal and nominal scales.
Findings – The main findings concern the general priorities of Generation Y and gender differences. The study presents the relation of generational features and mobility beha-viours, comparing them to those identified in the literature. The causes of such differences need to be widely discussed in the next papers, which draws some possible future research directions.
Research implications/limitations – A main limitation of the research is the chosen sampling strategy (non-random sampling) and risk related to non-inclusion of the important literature in the analysed database.
Originality/value/contribution – This research shows the characteristics of the Polish Generation Y’s mobility choices. This is the first summary in the literature on this topic and can be used both by academic staff and practitioners. It extends the current literature by summarising available literature on the mobility of the young adults and results from different research methods, approaches, research procedures, research samples and geographical areas.

Keywords: Generation Y, young adults, mobility choices, Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS), urban logistics.
JEL Classification: J11, O18, O52, R41.


Urszula Świerczyńska-Kaczor , Monika Żelazowska , Małgorzata Kotlińska , Jacek Wachowicz
2019; 36(2): 105-122;

Aim/purpose – This article aims to examine the relationships between the 360-degree viewer experience and video genres.
Design/methodology/approach – The presented empirical study was based on the respondents’ evaluation of two 360-degree videos: a documentary film and an episode from a web series.
Findings – The viewers evaluated the 360-degree video documentary as more interesting, more engaging, creating deeper immersion in the plot, and delivering more information compared to their experience when they would watch video if it were produced as a traditional film format. The study showed the differences in viewers’ evaluation of 360-degree documentaries and web series episodes. The evaluation of 360-degree videos was different between the two groups of respondents varying in their perception of navigation.
Research implications/limitations – Our study suggests that by implementing 360-degree video features in documentary films, we can evoke a more intensive viewer experience compared to the situation when the viewer would watch videos in the traditional film format. It also indicates that film production should take into account the different viewer’s perceptions of being actively engaged in the navigation. The limitations of the study: the qualitative study with the convenient respondent sampling, the subjective evaluation of respondents’ statements, and the subjective choice of the evaluated 360-degree videos.
Originality/value/contribution – The study contributes to film production by highlighting the significance of viewer perception of navigation and the video genre as factors impacting the viewer experience.

Keywords: 360-degree video, viewer experience, online film interactivity.
JEL Classification: O33, Z11.


Anna Tarabasz , Garima Poddar
2019; 36(2): 123-143;

Aim/purpose – Increasing importance of quantified self along with the number of available wearable devices create base for excitement among those perceiving technology as a catalyst for change. Despite multiple theories, in vain is to search for a model that would be suitable to visualise the adoption of wearables. The objective of this study is to recognise factors influencing the adoption of smart wearable devices and measure the strength of relationships between identified variables and dependent factor.
Design/methodology/approach – A proposed research model was developed and tested, based on an analysis of 108 survey insights from existing and potential users of smart wearable devices. With Dubai claiming itself ‘the smartest city worldwide’, research was purposely focused on this city, with insights collected during 37th GITEX (Gulf Information Technology Exhibition) Technology Week (8-12 October 2017), in Dubai. Statistical analysis, with the use of Adanco 2.0.1 software, was conducted and as a result, structural equation modelling was proposed.
Findings – The study shows clearly the growing importance of the wearables trend and consumers’ willingness to possess the same. Based on the conducted literature analysis, factors playing critical role, like Product Attributes (PA), Perceived Ease of Use (PE) and Perceived Usefulness (PU), were identified along with the gaps pertaining to the adoption of smart wearable devices in Dubai.
Research implications/limitations – The outputs of the conducted research provide practical guidance for solution/technology/product makers as well as sales representatives, to mould and pitch the product in a more effective manner. Due to time and financial constraints, study lacks conducted in-depth expert reviews, focus groups and labor-atory experiment for real-time experience with existing/planned products. The limited sample size (108 respondents) and lack of possibility to generalise on the population, due to sampling by convenience are other points of improvements for future research.
Originality/value/contribution – The study bridges the literature gap, providing quantitative analysis and overview of factors impacting on the adoption of wearable devices, based on the Theory of Reasoned Action, the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Technology Acceptance Model. Moreover, constructed on achieved results, it proposes a new sequential multi-method approach model of technology adoption, based on researched factors such as Perceived Usefulness and Attitude towards smart wearable devices, influenced by Perceived Ease of Use and Perception towards new technology. Findings of the study allow for direct business implementation by smart devices de-velopers, willing to introduce their new solutions to the market and plan their promotional strategy.

Keywords: wearables, wearable devices, Internet of Things (IoT), Dubai, adoption model.
JEL Classification: O14, O33, L86.


Mohsen Tavan
2019; 36(2): 144-168;

Aim/purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new hybrid modelling to predict carbon dioxide emissions in order to make the correct decision to reduce air pollution in Iran. While there are not many data available for some variables, in this modelling, the goal is to make accurate predictions even with low data.
Design/methodology/approach – In the present paper, CO2 emissions in Iran in the period of 1980-2014 was predicted using three models of Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL), Fuzzy Linear Regression (FLR) and hybrid model based on combination of ARDL and FLR models, and then the prediction accuracy of the models is compared.
Findings – Comparing prediction accuracy of models showed that the Fuzzy Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (FARDL) is more accurate than the initial patterns for predicting carbon dioxide emissions. Finally, the results showed that GDP and energy consumption has a positive and significant correlation with carbon dioxide emissions in short run. Also, the carbon dioxide emission indicated a low elasticity towards GDP and low energy consumption.
Research implications/limitations – When the number of data is low, the FARDL model provides a more accurate prediction than ARDL and FLR Models. FARDL’s combined model reduces the problems that exist in the ARDL and FLR models. One of the problems with the ARDL model is the need for many tests; the problem with the fuzzy regression model is also the high fuzzy distance length that makes decision making difficult. The FARDL model eliminates these constraints as much as possible.
Originality/value/contribution – This paper has been able to confirm that Fuzzy Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (FARDL) is more accurate than the initial patterns for predicting carbon dioxide emissions.

Keywords: forecast, carbon dioxide, Fuzzy Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag, Iran.
JEL Classification: Q53, Q41, P48, P18.